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One or two sources also names Robert of Geneva, but that is mere maliciousness. The words of the Custodians of the Conclave reported by Cardinal Noellet were, "Domini, expediatis vos cito de eligendo romanum vel italicum, alias et vos et nos sumus in periculo incidendi per frustra. Nos melius vidimus pericula quam vos.

After Archbishop de la Voulte's interruption and a reply from the Cardinals, which attempted to temporize but only angered the Romans the more, the Cardinals went back to business. Cardinal Corsini, as the senior Cardinal Bishop, ought to have given a short speech about the election, but he was so flustered and frightened that he could not Pedro de Luna Response Cardinal Noellet says that, disturbed by the public tumult, Corsini said merely, "Sermo fugit a me.

Cardinal de Cros Lemovicensis gave testimony [Baluzius I, ] that, when he went to the window of the Conclave, which would have been during the morning session, he saw Bartolomeo Prignano among the crowd outside the door of the Conclave: " Item, quando erant in conclavi paravit se ad fenestram et vidit illum Barensem inter gentes Romanorum, et quod audivit ab eo quod interfuisset consiliis Romanorum, sed semper suadebat eis ne facerent impressionem Cardinalibus. Archbishop de Amanatis says that he got his summons hora quasi mediarum tertiarum.

Other testimony indicates that the Cardinals did not send for the prelates until after the morning's troubled and incomplete vote.

In any event, this testimony seems to place Bartholomeo Prignano at the Vatican Palace around the mid-morning of the day of the first vote, April 8. This was, nonetheless, the via scrutinii , as contrasted to the way of inspiration or the way of compromise.


He named Cardinal Tebaldeschi, the Cardinal of S. Peter's, a Roman. Cardinal Hughes de Montelais, the Breton Cardinal, testified:. Et quando venit vox ad istum, noluit eum nominare iste Cardinalis, imo dixit quod non cognoscebant eum sicut ipse. The Cardinal de Britania also stated that before the Conclave began he never had it in his mind to nominate or consent to the election of Bartolomeo Prignano, and that even in the Conclave he did not name him non nominavit because he knew him to be melancholic and hot tempered melancholicus et furiosus homo [Baluzius I, ].

It is generally agreed that Cardinal Orsini refused to cast any vote whatever in the nominatio and electio on the morning of April 8 Baluzius I, , citing Cardinals Flandrin and Noellet and Bishops Thomas de Acervo of Lucera and Angelo of Pesauro : Et Dominus de Ursinis dixit quod non daret vocem suam alicui donec esset in libertate.

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His protest at the lack of liberty in the election, stated at the time of the "first election", is most important. This was NOT a complaint that arose from the cardinals days, weeks, or months later—as the Urbanites mendaciously insist. And, most unusually, Cardinal Bertrand Lagier, on April 6, during the Novendiales, before the Conclave had even begun, swore out a notarized and witnessed Protestatio Baluzius II, , stating that his judgment was that a pope should be chosen from among the Cardinals, not from outside the Sacred College, and that he was decided on naming three Ultramontane cardinals, and that if it turned out that he should nominate any Italian or anyone outside the Sacred College, it should be understood that his vote was being cast out of fear of death and did not represent his proper intent:.

Cardinal Lagier's statement is additional proof against the Urbanite claim that the Cardinals had decided on the election of Bartholomeo Prignano before the Conclave began. The Urbanites, however, avoid the difficulty by denying that Lagier made a protestatio at all, either before or during the Conclave Testimony of Giovanni Chambaruti , Bishop of Castro.

Part Three

In a marginal note to the Urbanite casus , presented to the King of Aragon, Cardinal de Luna calls the denial a lie, and affirms that Cardinal Lagier made a protestation in the Conclave after the election of Bartholomaeus Prignano. The bell of the Capitol at this point began to ring, in the same emergency style, and the armed crowds in the Piazza San Pietro and the area around the Apostolic Palace grew in number.

With the arrival of the crowds from every quarter, the chanting of their slogan, "Romano o al meno Ytaliano", grew in volume again. The most specific testimony as to the moment comes from the sworn deposition of Cardinal Pierre de Vergne, who places the ringing of the bell of the Capitol as the vote was proceeding in order through the Cardinal Deacons Baluzius I, :. Et inceperunt secundum ordinem suum exprimere vota sua. Et cum essent in hoc, audiverunt pulsari campanam capitolii, et interrogarunt ad quid pulsabatur.

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Et Cardinalis de Ursinis dixit quod nunquam pulsabatur nisi ad rumorem. Et alii dixerunt quod non debebant timere ita cito, nec debebant conqueri, quia adhuc illa erat prima dies. And while they were involved in this, they heard the Bell of the Capitol ringing, and they inquired the reason why it was being rung. And Cardinal Orsini sayd that it was never rung except for an emergency.

Others said that they should not be afraid so quickly, nor should they complain, since it was still only the first day. In other words, there was no prior agreement to elect Bartholomeo Prignano, Archbishop of Bari, to the papal throne.

Cardinal Pedro de Luna commented in his manuscript copy of the dossier of evidence on the Schism: "nondum tamen presentatio seu publicatio electionis seu nominationis supradicte facta fuerat nec predictus Barensis intraverat conclave nec ad presentiam DD. There was no presentation of a new pope , nor had a public announcement of the election of the aforementioned been made, nor had the previously named Archbishop of Bari entered the conclave, nor had he come into the presence of the Lords Cardinals, and neither did he come during that entire day.

The 'facts' given to Joannes de Lignano so that he could construct a case for Urban VI were in error or were insufficient in detail. It is known, in fact, that Joannes knew only what had been sent him. In he finally visited Rome, long after he had constructed the first version of his 'factum', and happened to meet Rodrigo Bernardi , the ambassador of the King of Castile, who was secretly taking depositions from those who had knowledge of the events of Bernardi provided him with material which he had collected for the King, and after he had examined it, Joannes remarked that, based on the evidence that Bernardi had shown him, any youth who had studied law for five years could decided the case, and that the election was coercive and invalid Baluzius I, ,.

Tunc respondit dictus Dominus Iohannes quod secundum casum per nos positum, unus juvenis qui audiret jura per quinque annos posset decidere istud dubium. Nam secundum veritatem juris talis electio erat impressiva et invalida , sed secundum casum sibi traditum aliter se res habuit. Nam dicebat quod Domini Cardinales ante ingressum conclavis gerebant in mentibus suis eligere dictum B. Et dicebat idem Dominus Iohannes quod in istis fundavit tractatum suum si bene advertatur. Thomas of Acerno, who was an Urbanite, nonetheless also stated the true fact in his deposition; two Cardinals would not vote for Bartolomeo Prignano, and both were Italians [Baluzius I, ]:.

And so everyone voted for him [Bartolomeo Prignano] except for two Cardinals, Giacomo Orsini, who did not wish to vote, and Cardinal Corsini, who voted for Cardinal Tebaldeschi. The others were voting in fear, rather than in a state of liberty, and expected that Bartolomeo would refuse the election, and that they could then reconstitute the Conclave elsewhere, where they might conduct a free and canonical election.

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The Cardinals, however, were still in a quandary as to how to proceed next. Should they proclaim the election of Bartholomeo Prignano, who was not a Roman, the Roman mob might attack them and kill them.

In order to conceal their actions and probably to gain time as well, the Cardinals sent for several prelates, six according to Cardinal Noellet, among them the Archbishop of Bari. At that point, food for lunch began to arrive from outside the Conclave. In those days it was the custom for the household of each cardinal to prepare his meal and carry it to the gate of the Conclave where food and other necessities were passed inside under the supervision of the Custodians of the Conclave.

The Cardinals returned to the Chapel after lunch, and there was a discussion about holding another vote. Obviously what had been done in the morning session had been done neither unanimiter nor concorditer , in the standard canonical electoral phrase. The Cardinals had spent more than five hours that morning trying to elect a pope in the midst of continual uproar.

Two cardinals had not voted for Bartolomeo Prignano, and a third had sworn ahead of the Conclave that if he did vote for a non-Cardinal, his vote should be disregarded—and he escaped from the Conclave at the first opportunity, that very morning. But this afternoon meeting was no longer the full conclave—which had been broken.

What the remaining thirteen cardinals thought they were doing, and with what canonical authority, is a distinct problem. Some of them though nor Orsini or Corsini had already apparently elected a candidate, Bartholomeo Prignano. It was their duty now to await his arrival and see whether he would accept the Papacy. That the remaining cardinals proceeded to another vote casts doubt upon the first vote in the morning. Does this not reflect the real fear, which was actually expressed by Cardinal Orsini and Cardinal Noellet, that the vote had been invalid due to impressio?

That was the conclusion drawn by the Inquisitor of Aragon, Nicolas Eymeric , based on his own experiences and investigations. His source for what had transpired inside the conclave was the Dean of Tarazona, who was Cardinal de Luna's conclavist, though he also received information from the Magister Sacri Palatii, Nicolaus de Santo Saturnino and from Petrus de Nuce, auditor of Cardinal de Luna:.

Romani informati quod DD. The flight of three cardinals from the Conclave is certainly evidence to that effect. The proceedings are all the more strange because Archbishop Bartolomeo Prignano was already in the Papal Palace, in the rooms reserved for the pope, on the floor below the Conclave. And yet, he and the cardinals never came face-to-face that day, April 8. How could there have been a successful election? While the remaining Cardinals in the chapel were discussing their second vote, the Roman mob broke into the Conclave and poured into the Chapel.

In fear of their lives the Cardinals attempted to flee. Some of the cardinals grabbed Cardinal Tebaldeschi, the Cardinal of St. Peter's, who was a Roman, and told the mob that he had been elected pope. A conclavist of Cardinal Robert of Geneva, it was said, put the papal cappa on his shoulders. Bartholomaeus de Lupiana, states: "Cardinales timore perterriti, ut dicebatur, induerunt capam Cardinali Sancti Petri, et dixerunt populo quod erat Papa. Frater Petrus of Cordova, a monk of the monastery of S.

Bartholomeo de Lupiana gave testimony as follows, that he had heard Baluzius I, :. Frater Petrus de Guadalfajara testified that the Cardinals, in fear, took Cardinal Tebaldeschi and put him on a throne with a mitre on his head and said to the populace that he was the Pope:. Cardinales timentes receperunt Cardinalem sancti Petri, et posuerunt eum in sede et mitram in capite, ut dicebatur, et dixerunt populo quod ille erat Papa.

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Et dictus Cardinalis [Tebaldeschi], quando poterat levare manum, deponebat mitram de capite, et dicebat, "Ego non sum papa. Sed Cardinalis Majoris monasterii, qui timebat multum Romanos, cum una manu tenebat mitram, et cum alia tenebat eum ut non fugeret. The Cardinal de Britannia, Hughes de Montelais, who, unlike the chatty Spanish monks, was actually present, testified Baluzius I, :.

Postea irruerunt Romani ad frangendum conclave, et quilibet captabat modum fugiendi. Tunc iste Cardinalis assistebat sibi et induit capam et dicebat eidem Domino Sancti Petri quod salvaret fratres suos. Ipse vero nolebat acquiescere. Finaliter cum Romani venirent ad faciendum illi reverentiam, eo invito, iste [Cardinalis de Britannia] recessit ad domum suam, qua nimis prope palatium. Audientes et videntes cardinales rumorem populi clamantis una voce: "Mora, Mora," dixerunt ad D.

Petri, prout audivi; "Si tu non liberas nos, omnis mortui sumus. Et unus cardinalis fecit se ad fenestram, dicens, "Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum, quia habemus papam, D.