Petitions circulated, indicting and condemning 22 Girondins. A decree was adopted that day by the Convention, after much tumultuous debate, expelling 22 leading Girondins from the Convention. Late that night, indeed dozens of Girondins had resigned and left the Convention. In August—September , militants urged the Convention to do more to quell the counter-revolution. A week later again 19 politicians. This hushed the Convention deputies: if henceforth they disagreed with Robespierre they hardly dared to speak out.
This encouraged other Convention members to also defy Robespierre.
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But no Convention member sympathized, they just told the women to return home. Again in May a crowd of 20, men and 40, women invaded the Convention and even killed a deputy in the halls, but again they failed to make the Convention take notice of the needs of the lower classes. Instead, the Convention banned women from all political assemblies, and deputies who had solidarized with this insurrection were sentenced to death: such allegiance between parliament and street fighting was no longer tolerated.
Each year, one-third of the chambers was to be renewed. Parliamentary elections in the spring of resulted in considerable gains for the royalists. Not only citizens opposed and even mocked such decrees, also local government officials refused to enforce such laws. Five directors then ruled France. Napoleon planned to move into Syria but was defeated and he returned to France without his army, which surrendered.
Royalists and their allies still dreamed of restoring the monarchy to power, while the Prussian and Austrian crowns did not accept their territorial losses during the previous war. The policies of the Revolution were reversed, except the Church did not get its lands back. Bishops and clergy were to receive state salaries, and the government would pay for the building and maintenance of churches. Although the Coalition was joined by other allies, the French Empire was also not alone since it now had a complex network of allies and subject states.
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The large amount of smuggling frustrated Napoleon, and did more harm to his economy than to his enemies. Freed from his obligation in the east, Napoleon then went back to the west, as the French Empire was still at war with Britain. Only two countries remained neutral in the war: Sweden and Portugal, and Napoleon then looked toward the latter.
French armies entered Spain in order to attack Portugal, but then seized Spanish fortresses and took over the kingdom by surprise. Napoleon assembled the largest army Europe had ever seen, including troops from all subject states, to invade Russia, which had just left the continental system and was gathering an army on the Polish frontier. Although there still were battles, the Napoleonic army left Russia in late annihilated, most of all by the Russian winter, exhaustion, and scorched earth warfare. Since the Spanish guerrillas seemed to be uncontrollable, the French troops eventually evacuated Spain.
Since France had been defeated on these two fronts, states that had been conquered and controlled by Napoleon saw a good opportunity to strike back. However many of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic reforms were kept in place. Napoleon centralized power in Paris, with all the provinces governed by all-powerful prefects whom he selected.
Religion had been a major issue during the Revolution, and Napoleon resolved most of the outstanding problems. Thereby he moved the clergy and large numbers of devout Catholics from hostility to the government to support for him. Protestant, Jews and atheists were tolerated. The French taxation system had collapsed in the s.
In the s the government seized and sold church lands and lands of exiles aristocrats. Napoleon instituted a modern, efficient tax system that guaranteed a steady flow of revenues and made long-term financing possible. Napoleon kept the system of conscription that had been created in the s, so that every young man served in the army, which could be rapidly expanded even as it was based on a core of careerists and talented officers. Before the Revolution the aristocracy formed the officer corps.
The modern era of French education began in the s. The Revolution in the s abolished the traditional universities. Praised for its Gallic clarity, it spread rapidly throughout Europe and the world in general, and marked the end of feudalism and the liberation of serfs where it took effect. It discarded the old right of primogeniture where only the eldest son inherited and required that inheritances be divided equally among all the children. The court system was standardized; all judges were appointed by the national government in Paris. The century after the fall of Napoleon I was politically unstable.
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As Tombs points out:. France was no longer the dominant power it had been before , but it played a major role in European economics, culture, diplomacy and military affairs. The Third Republic was established, but the possibility of a return to monarchy remained into the s. The French built up an empire, especially in Africa and Indochina. The economy was strong, with a good railway system. The French Revolution and Napoleonic eras brought a series of major changes to France which the Bourbon restoration did not reverse. First of all, France became highly centralized, with all decisions made in Paris.
The political geography was completely reorganized and made uniform. Each department had the identical administrative structure, and was tightly controlled by a prefect appointed by Paris. The complex multiple overlapping legal jurisdictions of the old regime had all been abolished, and there was now one standardized legal code, administered by judges appointed by Paris, and supported by police under national control.
Education was centralized, with the Grande Master of the University of France controlling every element of the entire educational system from Paris. Newly technical universities were opened in Paris which to this day have a critical role in training the elite. The old aristocracy had returned, and recovered much of the land they owned directly. However they completely lost all their old seigneurial rights to the rest of the farmland, and the peasants no longer were under their control.
The old aristocracy had dallied with the ideas of the Enlightenment and rationalism.
Now the aristocracy was much more conservative, and much more supportive of the Catholic Church. For the best jobs meritocracy was the new policy, and aristocrats had to compete directly with the growing business and professional class. Anti-clerical sentiment became much stronger than ever before, but was now based in certain elements of the middle class and indeed the peasantry as well. The great masses of the French people were peasants in the countryside, or impoverished workers in the cities. They gained new rights, and a new sense of possibilities.
Although relieved of many of the old burdens, controls, and taxes, the peasantry was still highly traditional in its social and economic behavior. Many eagerly took on mortgages to buy as much land as possible for their children, so debt was an important factor in their calculations. The working class in the cities was a small element, and had been freed of many restrictions imposed by medieval guilds. However France was very slow to industrialize, and much of the work remained drudgery without machinery or technology to help.
France was still localized, especially in terms of language, but now there was an emerging French nationalism that showed its national pride in the Army, and foreign affairs. The Catholic Church lost all its lands and buildings during the Revolution, and these were sold off or came under the control of local governments.
The bishop still ruled his diocese which was aligned with the new department boundaries , but could only communicate with the pope through the government in Paris. Bishops, priests, nuns and other religious people were paid salaries by the state. All the old religious rites and ceremonies were retained, and the government maintained the religious buildings.
The Church was allowed to operate its own seminaries and to some extent local schools as well, although this became a central political issue into the 20th century. Bishops were much less powerful than before, and had no political voice. However, the Catholic Church reinvented itself and put a new emphasis on personal religiosity that gave it a hold on the psychology of the faithful. France remained basically Catholic. The census counted 36 million people, of whom The return of the Bourbons in brought back many rich nobles and landowners who supported the Church, seeing it as a bastion of conservatism and monarchism.
However the monasteries with their vast land holdings and political power were gone; much of the land had been sold to urban entrepreneurs who lacked historic connections to the land and the peasants. Few new priests were trained in the — period, and many left the church. The result was that the number of parish clergy plunged from 60, in to 25, in , many of them elderly.
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Entire regions, especially around Paris, were left with few priests. On the other hand, some traditional regions held fast to the faith, led by local nobles and historic families.
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The comeback was very slow in the larger cities and industrial areas. With systematic missionary work and a new emphasis on liturgy and devotions to the Virgin Mary, plus support from Napoleon III, there was a comeback. In there were 56, priests, representing a much younger and more dynamic force in the villages and towns, with a thick network of schools, charities and lay organizations.
Quantitative analysis of output data shows the French per capita growth rates were slightly smaller than Britain. However the British population tripled in size, while France grew by only third—so the overall British economy grew much faster. For the — era, the growth rates for 12 Western advanced countries—10 in Europe plus the United States and Canada show that in terms of per capita growth, France was about average.ignamant.cl/wp-includes/81/1273-ubicacion-celular.php
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The 12 countries averaged 2. On becoming king, Louis issued a constitution known as the Charter which preserved many of the liberties won during the French Revolution and provided for a parliament composed of an elected Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Peers that was nominated by the king.
The right to vote in elections to the Chamber of Deputies was restricted to only the wealthiest men.
Louis was succeeded in turn by a younger brother, Charles X, who reigned from to On 22 November in Lyon the second largest city in France the silk workers revolted and took over the town hall in protest of recent salary reductions and working conditions. This was one of the first instances of a workers revolt in the entire world. Because of the constant threats to the throne, the July Monarchy began to rule with a stronger and stronger hand. Soon political meetings were outlawed.