No ghosts. No horror. You must modify your text: there are to be no murders, no blood, and the villains must speak in a refined language without cursing. Fears of juvenile delinquency were strong. American texts representing juvenile delinquency were deemed unsuitable for the French market by the Hachette readers.
They all agreed however that it would be awful to lose a manuscript from this well-loved author to another publisher. Thus the French book made it into press, while the American text was rejected. He concluded that although there was no danger of real teenage delinquents reading the book, it would teach other boys about them. It is interesting that he draws this distinction in potential readership: while comics were perceived to be the reading material of choice for the juvenile delinquent, books could be treated differently.
All treated the subject of youthful criminality as difficult and requiring careful censorship.
Olympe de Gouges (1748—1793)
Commercially however, losing a popular, respected French author was considered to be more dangerous than the potential criticism of his subject matter. Fifi is a liar from the beginning to the end of these two books. The story featured a young girl who is neglected by her parents and resorts to making up fantastical stories to compensate for her loneliness. Is this a good example for children who just want to give free reign to their imaginations?
They were particularly alert to how the individual child behaved with respect to the family and institutions of the state. Inspired by the progressive education movement, many modern authors took a liberationist as opposed to a protectionist stance on childhood.
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The child lives on her own, for her mother is dead and her father is lost at sea—probably king of the cannibals now, Pippi surmises. She evades all attempts to make her conform to the usual path of childhood, including sending her to an orphanage, attending school, or even going to bed at night. The first translation of the trilogy reduced to two books published in —53 did not differ greatly from the source text.
However, when reprinted with a much larger print run from 10, per volume to 50, in —63 under Mirman, it was drastically cut—as the quotation above made clear, the character did not conform to the norms of the series. In other words, Pippi was a joyous rejection of all the values that France craved to return to in the wake of the Second World War, and ran counter to the discourse on the responsibilities of literature. In striking contrast, Pippi was welcomed into the American and British literary systems. The first British edition from embraced, even amplified, her anarchism.
The front cover illustration by Richard Kennedy depicted Pippi on horseback brandishing a pistol, riding away from school leading a group of children to escape school as the teacher looks on, horrified. However, the extent to which the French and British understandings of what was appropriate reading matter for children could differ is best understood by looking not at the innovators, but at the case of Enid Blyton, the most conservative of British authors and who wrote for the mass market.
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
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The Museum, small but stuffed with amphorae is a jewel. The building dates from the XVIIth century. It had nothing to do with the Greeks or the Romans, but was about an exposition of glazed pottery from Mediterranean wrecks. After the war, Fernand Benoit was the big boss of archaeology. The Germans had done him a favor by blowing up the old town in Marseille: Scared by the slash-your-throat look of the place, they kicked everybody out and blew up the middle-age section choosing to leave one building standing in a show of culture?!
Unfortunately for Benoit, he could not leisurely have a go at finding the greek settlement. Reconstruction had to happen. But he did find the theater, the roman docks, a huge ionic capital re-employed in the docks, maybe a relic of the temples mentionned by Strabon?
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While my father came from Lyon, my maternal family was from the agora of Marseille and like many marseillais had a cabanon in a small fishing village of Les Goudes, where the road around the bay runs into the superb white rocky hills called Le Massif des Calanques. Around , a friend of ours from Les Goudes, Gaston Christianini was fishing with the help of a new invention: air bottles. His discovery was taken over by Cousteau and Benoit. The Calypso was anchored over the wreck. It was the beginning of underwater archaeology, the commercialization of the aqualung, and the making of Cousteau Superstar.
Benoit was now overwhelmed with artifacts from the sea time-capsules. He was having to rethink many things, and as his student Jean Courtin explained his style, he went at it with a shovel, and not with a brush like they do today. So he made big mistakes: he did not fathom that the wood they found in the wreck was not the deck of the roman ship , but the bottom of another wreck which had settled down on top of the other one , some years later, mixing up the artifacts, and sending Benoit to the wrong conclusion that the land dated ceramics were mistakenly dated.
So what! He was inventing methods, conceiving new ideas about trade. He does not need as a feather in his cap to be called the inventor of the Conclu wreck. Gaston Christianini is the man who found it. Unsung hero of underwater archaeology, Gaston after his accident went back to scuba diving. He would shuffle across the square throwing his legs around in order to walk to the harbor and reach his boat "Joie de vivre".. A smile from ear to ear, in his wet suit, this is how I remember him. His staff visits the islands regularly to tag the endangered species of birds, and they find bits and pieces.
History - Riou and the Calanques - Dr Albert
They collect them to eventually pass them onto Gantes. I said yes before I looked at them..! I was also taking a course " Introduction to Archaeology" in a local college near my home in California. Breece , who had worked at Lascaux, did not talk much about the Greeks. An artifact found there by my kids turned out to be a scrapper. We had an outing with archaeologists friends on the trails of Shoshone Indians once, found some quartz, some metate. Mocking his sister who was deeply involved in the genealogy of the Albert family, he told us that Cromagnon was our real ancestor.
And of course with Lascaux, Chauvet and Cosquer, the paleolithics are the stars in France. Not so much in the US, especially with Cosquer. The Marseillais are always accused of exaggerating their accounts to make them more interesting to the audience. And of course Cosquer did not reveal his findings for 5 years which made it look suspicious for the wrong reasons. I will come back to this later. So here I was, really concerned about finding as much as possible about the Massalietes, and I was forced to learn about other cultures.
follow site He had done digs on the island just after the time my father ended his work there, he had written papers about the sea level, he was the master of Cosquer. Jean Courtin was THE expert in neolithics, way up on the totem pole of the south of France archaeology. I had to meet him! LF Gantes told me that he was retired and a recluse in his farm in Haute Provence. In that video Jean Clottes was the narrator, watching the "dig" on a TV screen.
Breece mentionned Jean Clottes was in California giving a lecture on Chauvet. I went there, and asked for Courtin's adress. I carefully composed a letter as I was ready to head back to France for the summer. Strabon, a roman geographer mentions the Stoechaedes Islands , but there are quite a few groups of islands which could fit the name. The book deals with all the french archipelagoes along the coast of Southern France, the archipel de Riou included, and thought to be the small Stoechaedes.