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The Promise of Revolutionary Love and the Black Woman’s Body

All of these proposed dialogues bring my analysis to consider the importance of Negracubana for the Cuban virtual context as well as for comparative race and feminist studies.

Love Revolution: con once poemas en español

In post-Soviet Cuba, many authors have ventured into digital networking and have worked with different notions of community that could break through the traditional socialist proposition of a masculine lettered city De Ferrari , 2—3. Her brief introduction says:. Throughout her blog, she has explained that studies and love are the most important reasons for immigrating to Germany. Its operation, creation, and effects become an intellectual contribution to Cuban studies at a time when the island continues to juggle a socialist state and a neoliberal economy.

After the Haitian Revolution — , as Ada Ferrer , 1—12 documents, Cuba became immersed in a debate on race that was intrinsically related to the one on colonialism. In the teleology of the nationalist narrative that the government has constructed, the revolution becomes the completion of national independence. For the foundational discourses of the Cuban Revolution, however, the promise of happiness has not arrived yet, and the debate on race, one of the two key issues moving forward from the nineteenth-century war, needs to wait for when the promise is completed.

Federico García Lorca

What, then, is the sacrifice that is needed for happiness to arrive? Who are the subjects that will lead the path to the fulfillment of the promise? That is, who is the revolutionary subject, as imagined by the foundational discourses of the revolution? The division between low and high forms of love leads us to a conceptualization of knowledge that distinguishes between experience everyday life and ideology.

In this sense, ordinary affection is not true love, true knowledge, or truly revolutionary. The revolucionarios de vanguardia , as Guevara calls them, are the figures who possess a clear vision of the project; they know how to fulfill the promise of happiness.

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And who better than all of you can write the present? Through his reductive anecdote about this body, Castro constructs a narrative that establishes the revolution as the culmination of the struggles for the nineteenth-century Emancipation and Independence Wars. Nevertheless, even if the nationalization of African heritage in Cuba contrasted with developments in other Hispanic Caribbean islands where Hispanism was almost the sole source of nationalism during these same decades, the valorization of black culture did not translate into social equality between whites and blacks.

Rather, this kind of nationalism became, at some points, a process by which an active disembodiment of black and mulata women also sought to fetishize them and sell them as pleasurable commodities associated with the island. Moreover, official revolutionary rhetoric still considers it an act of treason to the revolution to talk in an international forum about prejudices such as racism in Cuba. The revolutionary discourse also contended that the new order ended gender inequality. Within the Cuban sociocultural hierarchy, therefore, black women confront everyday life battles because of their race and gender.

The delayed promise of happiness of the revolution never came; but constant reward has been granted to white male bodies, while black female bodies are the ones enduring the sacrifice. This racial and socioeconomic reality is also reflected in Internet access and use across the island.


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Therefore, black women are the most likely to be excluded from web navigation, participation, and networking. I coincide with Recio in that one of the most interesting forms of online activism at work in Cuba is the one questioning structural racism on the island and in the Americas. Very much like Fanon and Lorde, her everyday life experiences as a black woman in Cuba and Germany become the focal point of her analysis and her propositions.

The analysis of both writing strategies reveals the complex operation of systemic racism and sexism and how these systems shift according to specific contextual characteristics. This kind of reading also reveals the varying tactics used to live in the intersection of gender, race, and sexuality. For Fanon, under the white gaze, the black body becomes a negation of the white body and therefore blackness is a handicap.

Riding the Parisian Metro, Fanon realizes that nobody wants to sit beside him.


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  • Disgust and fear are alerts that warn against possible contagion; there should be no proximity to the black body. In their interaction, music and the body create an intimate knowledge based on emotions and memories—but in the context of the German train, the manifestation of this knowledge through the black female body is read as a disease or a handicap. In other entries, she further reflects on this familiar feeling and on how the Cuban Revolution failed to address the systematic racism and sexism she has experienced since girlhood.

    In one of the anecdotes that open many of her blog entries, she remembers a FMC conference in which Castro distributed pressure cookers to the women in attendance—a gesture that denoted the sinuous relationship between patriarchy and the revolution. While there, he wrote El estrecho dudoso and other epic poems that discuss Central America's history. During the s, the William Walker expedition from the United States tried to make Nicaragua subservient to the Southern Confederacy.

    According to legend, a defector from that expedition married into Cardenal's family line. Incorporating details from Ephraim George Squier's chronicles of that period, Cardenal's poem " With Walker in Nicaragua " "is tender toward the invaders without being sentimental," Elman observes. The poet identifies with a survivor of the ill-fated expedition in order to express the contrast between the violent attitudes of the outsiders and the beauty of the tropical land they hoped to conquer. Passed back into English, it is as if we have suddenly a limpid Pound, clear and sensual, without all that nervous and restless static.

    Later poems become increasingly explicit regarding Cardenal's political sympathies. The poem's subject is the assassination of revolutionary leader Cesar Augusto Sandino, who used guerilla tactics against the United States Marines to force them to leave Nicaragua in Moving further back in time to reclaim a common heritage for his countrymen, Cardenal recaptures the quality of pre-Columbian life in Homage to the American Indians. These descriptions of Mayan, Incan and Nahuatl ways of life present their attractiveness in comparison to the social organization of the present. In these well-crafted and musical poems written at the end of the s, the poet praises "a way of life which celebrates peace above war and spiritual strength above personal wealth.

    One has a strong sense when reading Cardenal that he is using the American Indian as a vehicle to celebrate those values which are most important to him as a well-educated Trappist monk who has dedicated himself to a life of spiritual retreat," F. Whitney Jones remarks in the Southern Humanities Review.

    That the poems are didactic in no way impedes their effectiveness, say reviewers, who credit the power of the verses to Cardenal's mastery of poetic technique. The use of Biblical rhetoric and prosody energizes much of Cardenal's poetry.

    Alexandre Blok, des poèmes (français)

    El estrecho dudoso , like the Bible, "seeks to convince men that history contains lessons which have a transcendent significance," James J. Poems in Salmos , written in the s, translated and published as The Psalms of Struggle , echo the forms and the content of the Old Testament psalms. Cardenal's psalms are updated to speak to the concerns of the oppressed in the twentieth century.

    His anguished outcries over the rapaciousness of the greedy and the viciousness of the dictators are the work of a man who has lived through some of the atrocities of this century. As the conflict between the Nicaraguan people and the Somoza government escalated, Cardenal became convinced that without violence, the revolution would not succeed.

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    For example, Jascha Kessler, speaking on KUSC-FM radio in Los Angeles, California in , commented, "It is clearly handy to be a trained priest, and to have available for one's poetry the voices of Amos, Isaiah, Hosea and Jeremiah, and to mix prophetic vision with the perspectives of violent revolutionary Marxist ideology. It makes for an incendiary brew indeed. It is not nice; it is not civilized; it is not humane or sceptical or reasonable. But it is all part of the terrible heritage of Central Latin America.

    Furious or revolted as Cardenal is over this or that dreadful inequity, he never loses hope.

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    Rygiel cites the poem "Las tortugas" "The Turtles" to demonstrate that Cardenal's reference to "communism" as the order of nature might better be understood as "communalism," a social organization of harmonious interdependence founded on spiritual unity. The poet-priest's social vision stems from his understanding of "the kingdom of God," Lawrence Ferlinghetti notes in Seven Days in Nicaragua Libre.

    They foresee also the withering away of the state ' [Ferlinghetti's emphasis]. Alstrum notes, however, that El estrecho dudoso "reaffirms the Judeo-Christian belief that there is an inexorable progression of historical events which point toward the ultimate consummation of the Divine Word.

    Cardenal's work of several decades reaches its zenith in two collections focusing on his primary subjects: American Indians and Christian Marxism.

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    This reveals "nothing less than an original mythology closely tied to a modern poetics," as Terry O. Taylor notes in World Literature Today. Cosmic Canticle unifies Cardenal's cantos written over three decades into a modern epic poem.