Earth orbits the sun once every Since our calendar years have only days, we add an extra leap day every four years to account for the difference.
Though we can't feel it, Earth zooms through its orbit at an average velocity of During this circuit, our planet is an average of 93 million miles away from the sun, a distance that takes light about eight minutes to traverse. Astronomers define this distance as one astronomical unit AU , a measure that serves as a handy cosmic yardstick. Earth rotates on its axis every This axis of rotation is tilted Whichever hemisphere is tilted closer to the sun experiences summer, while the hemisphere tilted away gets winter.
In the spring and fall, each hemisphere receives similar amounts of light. On two specific dates each year—called the equinoxes—both hemispheres get illuminated equally.
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About 4. Over time, Earth's interior—which is made mostly of silicate rocks and metals—differentiated into four layers. At the planet's heart lies the inner core, a solid sphere of iron and nickel that's miles wide and as hot as 9, degrees Fahrenheit. The inner core is surrounded by the outer core, a 1,mile-thick band of iron and nickel fluids. Beyond the outer core lies the mantle, a 1,mile-thick layer of viscous molten rock on which Earth's outermost layer, the crust, rests.
On land, the continental crust is an average of 19 miles thick, but the oceanic crust that forms the seafloor is thinner—about three miles thick—and denser. Like Venus and Mars, Earth has mountains, valleys, and volcanoes. But unlike its rocky siblings, almost 70 percent of Earth's surface is covered in oceans of liquid water that average 2.
Planet Earth II
These bodies of water contain 97 percent of Earth's volcanoes and the mid-ocean ridge , a massive mountain range more than 40, miles long. Earth's crust and upper mantle are divided into massive plates that grind against each other in slow motion. As these plates collide, tear apart, or slide past each other, they give rise to our very active geology. Earthquakes rumble as these plates snag and slip past each other. Many volcanoes form as seafloor crust smashes into and slides beneath continental crust.
When plates of continental crust collide, mountain ranges such as the Himalaya are pushed toward the skies. Earth's atmosphere is 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and one percent other gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and argon. Much like a greenhouse, this blanket of gases absorbs and retains heat.
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We can go several days without food, but water is a necessity. This week you will complete the Study of Planet Earth afghan, congratulations! Thank you for your enthusiasm and participation in this wonderful crochet along. It was out of this world!
Don't have supplies? Get info about what you need to join the Crochet Along here. The coast is where water meets land. Some coasts are beach-like, others are carved stone with layers of erosion. The coast includes some of the highest cliffs in the world, they are so high they reach the clouds. This stitch requires you to turn at the end of the round in order to keep the stitch aligned.
This layer will take a bit of time — but the view is so worth it! Oceans are necessary for human life, they create most of our oxygen and nurture over , species. To represent this layer in the afghan, Mikey used braided cables. They embody the churning of ocean swells and create a unique eye-popping texture. It lies between the Earths super hot core and the outer layer, the crust. The Study of Planet Earth afghan embodies this thick, solid state with the bean stitch, giving the illusion of boulders puzzled together.
This layer is sure to be eye popping! Watch round 14, as Mikey is added an extra stitch to bring balance as the afghan grows. Use single crochet to keep the outer core layer nice and flat. To begin, a gauge check is required. Adjust your hook accordingly as gauge matters as the rotation of the stitches need to work with each other. Use front and back post work to create outward ridges.
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