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A third edition of the first part was published in the year as a separate treatise on the Physiology of Mind, In the order of time and development this volume on the Pathology of Mind is therefore a third edition of the second part; but in substance it is a new work, having been recast throughout, largely added to, and almost entirely rewritten.

The new material which has been added includes chapters on "Dreaming" and on "Somnambulism and its Allied States," subjects which, although they may not perhaps be thought to appertain strictly to a treatise on mental pathology, will be found, when studied scientifically, to throw light upon its obscure phenomena and to help to bridge the gap between it and mental physiology. A perplexing impression was produced on my mind when I first began to study mental diseases - now upwards of twenty years ago - by the isolation in which they seemed to be.

On the one hand, treatises on psychology made no mention of them, and gave not the least help towards an understanding of them; and, on the other hand, treatises on mental disorders, while giving full information concerning them, treated their subject as if it belonged to a science entirely distinct from that which was concerned with the sound mind. By Henry idaudaley, M.

Landoll: Macmillan and Co. It is perfectly possible to accept the doctrine, without denial of Free- will, as an essential attribute of moral and responsible beings in their normal state. That such freedom may be abolished, or its action diminished, in certain morbid conditions, is simply a question of science, not a principle of ethical philosophy ; and the difficulties which such facts may give rise to in legal ques-.

There is the same consensus in regard to another form of insanity, the impulsive, the existence of which it has become the fashion to deny. Not a book has been written by an expert during the last half-century that has not teemed with cases of persons forced by a motiveless impulse, as of a demon within, to commit some act, often of violence, which their souls utterly abhorred at the very moment of commission. Mandsley's discussion of this, which may sometimes almost deserve the name of automatic madness, is extremely interesting, especially where he deals with the insanity of early childhood, and with tho well-known connection between impulsive madness and epilepsy.

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Nothing can be more convincing than his demonstration of the blundering character of the tests of insanity so often laid down in our Courts of law, such as the" existence of distinctliallucination," the "knowing of right from wrong," and the "knowledge of the unlawful nature of the act committed. This is a weighty and a bulky subject; we cannot now outer upon it, but we recommend all who are tempted, in order to escape from a very troublesome and responsible analysis of the mental condition of some of their fellow-men, to adopt the con- venient expedient of denying the existence of impulsive insanity, and of that which has its seat in the affective and moral part of humanity, to study the work now under our consideration.

We have often had occasion to animadvert on the evidence of experts. The application of the rules of jurisprudence or of justice to those facts is quite a different matter, and one on which the scientific experts often err as far on the one side as judges and lawyers go astray on the other. Is not the priority in the chain of causation of impulsive and emotional madness to intellectual delusion and incoherence, all merging finally in the utter chaos of complete dementia, what we might a priori expect, on psychological grounds P Is it not an illustration of the "wish being father to the thought P" The desire or appetency, be it merely animal, or be it in the region of love, or hatred, or ambition, or in higher regions still, is the man himself, and the intelligence, strictly 80 called, is merely his instrument, by which he gives definite shape to, compares and tests, what lie has got by his senses from without, or his intuition from within.

The pathological fact corresponds with the psychological order. Perhaps the most interesting part of this book is that which treats of the insane temperament, that semi-morbid condition of mind which we often find in persons who belong to an insane family, and are strongly predisposed to actual disease, a condition at once allied to original genius and to ridiculous eccentricity. Intense egoism, extreme suspicion and distrust, gross miserli- ness or extravagance, a habit of vacillation and self-torture, a congenital defect of conscience, are among the common signs of this ; but among the most curious are such small propensities as the following,—it is given in the words of the 'patient himself, a man who never became insane, but had several rela- tions who were so :—.

An imperative necessity seemed laid upon me to touch or move this or that object, though I might have no desire to do so; and as, I think, is related of Dr. Johnson, I would submit to no little inconvenience to avoid treading on the joints of the paving-stones.

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Generally, I may say that that which was least pleasant seemed most strongly obligatory ; for example, if I chanced to be walking with any one, the impulse to pick up a chance straw in the path was greatly stronger than if I were alone, though or, perhaps, because I was very sensitive to fear of my peculiarities being known ; and again, though I was fantastically particular as to cleanliness, I was especially impelled to touch some dirty or offensive object. I remember putting myself to considerable trouble to go out again, after reaching home, to move some trifling thing which I had chanced to notice on the pavement.

In later years, this man was tormented by an impulse to utter blasphemous or obscene words, which he conscientiously. In order to resist this, he used to hold the tip of his tongue between his teeth, so as to render articulation physically impossible. Admirable as are Dr. Maudsley's descriptions and analysis of the varied forms of mental disease, the whole is, as might be expected. Allowance must be made for this, in the roadiug of almost every page. It is easy, in general, to separate the wheat from the chaff, and to translate his statements into the language of old-fashioned psychology, without the loss of anything really valuable.

Subjective phenomena which might have been presented simply and effec-. The author, in this work, seems to have somewhat more of the courage of his opinions, and more consistency, than he.

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The Ego and the Will are in general here represented as effects, not as a regulating or controlling entity, which has in its power to. Mandsley has here more successfully avoided the temptation to lapse into the language of the opposite school of thought, to which, in his zeal for proving that materialism is not a negation of moral.

Even hete, however, now and then, the author seems to forget the more thorough aspect of his Materialism, and allows himself to use language which implies that the cerebral changes give rise to, rather than constitute, mental action, operating on, a so7ncthing which is, implicitly, not the mere cerebral organism itself. Of course, as the congeries of phenomena which we call mind is, in Dr. Maudsley'e opinion, the mere product of organisation, existence after the death of the physical frame is out of the question.

Speaking of the senile decay of the faculties, he writes :—. Modern science tends to reduce the operation of all the physical forces to motion. What identity, or even distant resemblance, there can be between motion or change of position in space, and mental phenomena, it is hard to imagine.

The transformation of heat, light, or electricity into each other, is at least conceivable ; but the change of any of these things into thought is absolutely unthinkable. Even the late G. Lewes, himself a quasi-materialist for he mingled his materialism with a semi-Kantism , seemed to have difficulty in believing even that nerve-structure could be the immediate cause of mental changes,—much less that its changes could constitute them.

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Maudeley's book in which he almost seems to think that the extreme minuteness of the molecular nerve-structure, and its changes, and the impossibility, with our present instru- ments, of detecting them, affords an argument in favour of his. That these structures and changes exist, are infini- tesimally minute and complex, and that they have some con- nection with mental phenomena, we of course admit ; but we fail to see that the ultra-microscopic nature of things which no- body doubts to be material, in the most ordinary sense of that term, helps us out of the difficulties of that phase of materialism which we are now considering.

It is, however, useless to dwell on these vexed qnestions ; they have been discussed in the great controversy of the day, over and over again. On his own. It is difficult to see why the one should be reprobated, and the other not. It cannot be that the one is irresistible and the other capable of being resisted, for even diseased impulse is ad- mittedly resistible up to a certain point.

Mandsley's philosophy, cannot have any intelligible meaning, except in relation to that state of brain in which there is still sufficient normal action to allow the influence of conscience or of the fear of punishment to operate as a counteracting cause, provided these motives are strongly enough presented front without. Both in the so-called vicious and in the morbid being, the mere fact that the criminal act is committed proves for Dr.